Selenium 使用 Chrome 瀏覽器 webdriver

Step 1:要安裝 python, 如果是 Linux 或 MacOS 內建就有 python.
(附註:除了python 如果你懂其他程式語言也可以實作,不限於python程式語言,大同小異)

Step 2:要安裝 pip 指令。

Step 3:執行指令:

 pip install selenium

如果在 Linux 或 MacOS 平台裡執行pip install 失敗,請先pip install virtualenv.

如果是 Windows平台,請直接跳到 Step 4.

virtualenv 基礎教學:
http://docs.python-guide.org/en/latest/dev/virtualenvs/


pip安裝virtualenv:

pip install virtualenv

教學:
http://pythonguidecn.readthedocs.io/zh/latest/dev/virtualenvs.html


cd your_project_folder
virtualenv venv
. venv/bin/activate

滿有趣的,提示字元前多了一個(venv)

要退出,就是下 deactivate 即可。

只有第1次需要下 virtualenv venv 之後要進去,就是. venv/bin/activate 就進去了。

滿神奇的,可以不需要下 sudo 就可以透過 pip 安裝所有的程式。virtualenv 裡是乾淨的,所以所有第3方的 package 需要重新 pip install 一次。


Step 4:下載ChromeDriver

ChromeDriver 可以讓 Selenium Server 呼叫 Google Chrome 執行,ChromeDriver 網站:
https://sites.google.com/a/chromium.org/chromedriver/

下載頁面:
https://sites.google.com/a/chromium.org/chromedriver/downloads

ChromeDriver目前有支援 Linux 64bit / macOS 64bit / Windows 32bit (64bit 也可以執行 32bit程式)

除了有 ChromeDriver 還有 SafariDriver 則可以讓 Selenium Server 呼叫 Safari 執行,它是一個 Safari Extension.

完成 step 3 的 selenium 的安裝,和 step 4 下載ChromeDriver 之後,先試看看這個sample code:

from selenium import webdriver
 
chromedriver = "/Users/max/Documents/chromedriver"
driver = webdriver.Chrome(chromedriver)
driver.get("http://tw.yahoo.com/")

說明1:這個ChromeDriver 路徑請換成您電腦實際下載的資料夾。

說明2:這個範例會開一個新的 chrome 視窗並連到網址 http://tw.yahoo.com/

附註:目前的範例是透過 python 去控制 selenium + chromedriver,如果你懂其他的程式語言,也是可以實作的出來,異曲同工。


範例 2 號:

web.get('http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/')
web.set_window_position(0,0) #瀏覽器位置
web.set_window_size(700,700) #瀏覽器大小
time.sleep(5)

web.find_element_by_link_text('天氣預報').click() #點擊頁面上"天氣預報"的連結
time.sleep(5)

web.close()

webdriver有許多方法,

範例 2 號使用的是find_element_by_link_text(),還有許多方法如下:

find_element_by_name()
find_element_by_id()
find_element_by_tag_name()
find_element_by_partial_link_text()
find_element_by_css_selector()

另一種用法:

area = el.find_element(By.TAG_NAME, “a”)

  • By.TAG_NAME
  • By.CSS_SELECTOR

用法可以參考SeleniumHQ:

http://www.seleniumhq.org/docs/03_webdriver.jsp


常見問題(Q&A)

Q:網速到底有沒有差?
光世代有分300M/100M,100m/40m,請知道的是如果在同樣的操作環境,人也一樣,那300m的會不會比100m的更高的機率買到票? 到底什麼是比別人快買到票的關鍵因素?? 售票系統的運作原理是什麼? 為何我的手速也很快了,但為什麼一進去票就是都被買了?他們到底是什麼原因比我快進去,快送出購票請求??

A:高速的網路下載速度是有差異的,也許差幾個毫秒吧,以100Mbps和20Mbps來說下載一個拓元的網頁可能差異不大。

買票前建議先試著去買其他表演,事先下載好購票網頁會使用到的 javascript 和 css 檔案,可以透過離線檔案的快取(cache) 加速網頁的反應時間。

建議使用chrome 瀏覽器來搶票,反應時間會快一點。

「售票系統的運作原理」不難,google 一下就可以看到大量的實作和原理教學,在這裡就不詳述。以目前常見的網頁相關技術來說,在網路上大型的網站實作原理都大同小異,大致上會使用負載平衡(load balance)架構分散主機的網頁流量和要求,通常是(但不是絕對)在資料庫的伺服器那一段程式碼來決定那一個要求可以買到票的,大多數伺服器在處理排隊(queue)的要求是先進先出(first in first out),所以如果你的網路早一點下載完網頁,早一點執行完javascript,早一點送出搶票的要求,理論上搶到票的機率會高一點。

Q:您提到,拓元有分 detail 和 game, 連到game的網址,搶票才會快,假如一開始時間還沒到,「立即購票」的按鈕根本還沒出現,用這個方法,要怎麼使用呢??
A:detail 網址和 game 網址是一樣的,是獨立的,在購票流程裡你可以對可以購票的場次各使用 detail 和 game 網址去訂一次票,就可以知道其中差異,速度上 game 網址也可以買到票,由於傳回的網頁裡的資訊還有所執行的javascript較少,理論上也許會快幾個毫秒。

Q:用搶票機器人,跟手動的差別? 這個問題主要是問,機器人的速度跟用手動的速度,會差距明顯嗎?手的速度能不能贏過機器人?
A:我有放示範用的youtube影片,那個反應時間以人類手指和眼球速度應該無法超越。

Q:能開發軟體嗎?讓不懂程式的人也可以用?
A:
問題1:其實這個「搶票軟體」程式碼沒有幾行,不知道要賣多少錢?
問題2:「搶票軟體」無法保證可以買的到票,也許還有很多其他人使用了機器人來搶票。
問題3:「搶票軟體」可能遇到一些問題,會跑來問我,會占用掉我的間時。問題可能有:執行環境沒設定好,或是拓元網頁會改版。

Q:有試著安裝及研究python,也成執行了webdriver幾個範例,但是還是不了解要如何寫出與您所說一支小程式來搶票?

A:請先學會如何透過python 程式自動去點畫面上的按鈕。

 

Q:怎麼像你一樣在已開啟及已登入的視窗執行python?

A:python會全開啟一個全新的視窗,請使用該視窗去登入 Google/Facebook/Pixel Pin.

 

Q:你的教程中,電腦用的是Linux的系統,Windows系統是無法使用嗎?

A:Windows 也可以使用哦。而且語法相同。ChromeDriver目前有支援 Linux 64bit / macOS 64bit / Windows 32bit (64bit 也可以執行 32bit程式)檔案下載:
http://chromedriver.chromium.org/downloads

 

Q:如何判斷某一個網址,去做特定事情?
A:

while True:
    time.sleep(0.2)
    url = ""
    try:
        url = driver.current_url
    except Exception as exc:
        pass

    if url is None:
        continue
    else:
        if len(url) == 0:
            continue
    print(url)

 

Q:google提供的擴充附件外掛 官方是不是會查出來?

A:這不是google提供。不確定官方是不是查的出來,要查的出來的可能很低,難度也很高,難在伺服器端很難判斷用戶是否為機器人。

 


實際範例:

如果有一個html 長的像醬子:

該按鈕的 html code:

<input class="btn btn-next" data-href="/ticket/area/18_RBTW/4029" name="yt0" type="button" value="立即訂購">

要取到該按鈕的 python code:

el = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('.btn-next')

讓按鈕產生點擊的事件的 python code:

el.click()

有可能會找不到element

How to use the try/except with Selenium Webdriver when having Exceptions on Python

To be able to use required exception you have to import it first with correct name (NoSuchElement -> NoSuchElementException):

from selenium.common.exceptions import NoSuchElementException

try:
    WebDriver.find_element_by_css_selector('div[class="..."')
except NoSuchElementException:
    ActionToRunInCaseNoSuchElementTrue

Using JavaScript

element = driver.execute_script("return $('.cheese')[0]")

設定 select 裡的值:

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import Select
select = Select(driver.find_element_by_tag_name("select"))
select.select_by_visible_text("Edam")

勾選 checkbox :

You can “toggle” the state of checkboxes, and you can use “click” to set

html:

<input type="checkbox" value="1" name="TicketForm[agree]" id="TicketForm_agree">

python code:

el = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, '#TicketForm_agree')

or

driver.execute_script("$('#TicketForm_agree').prop('checked', true);")

附註:讓輸入框focus 請用 javascript:

$('#TicketForm_verifyCode').focus()

WebDriver Status
https://chromium.googlesource.com/chromium/src/+/master/docs/chromedriver_status.md

這些是目前 WebDriver 支援的指令。


webdriver.py 實際的原始碼,理論上不需要去看,大部份的人也看不懂

"""The WebDriver implementation."""

import base64
import copy
import warnings
from contextlib import contextmanager

from .command import Command
from .webelement import WebElement
from .remote_connection import RemoteConnection
from .errorhandler import ErrorHandler
from .switch_to import SwitchTo
from .mobile import Mobile
from .file_detector import FileDetector, LocalFileDetector
from selenium.common.exceptions import (InvalidArgumentException,
                                        WebDriverException)
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.common.html5.application_cache import ApplicationCache

try:
    str = basestring
except NameError:
    pass


_W3C_CAPABILITY_NAMES = frozenset([
    'acceptInsecureCerts',
    'browserName',
    'browserVersion',
    'platformName',
    'pageLoadStrategy',
    'proxy',
    'setWindowRect',
    'timeouts',
    'unhandledPromptBehavior',
])

_OSS_W3C_CONVERSION = {
    'acceptSslCerts': 'acceptInsecureCerts',
    'version': 'browserVersion',
    'platform': 'platformName'
}


def _make_w3c_caps(caps):
    """Makes a W3C alwaysMatch capabilities object.

    Filters out capability names that are not in the W3C spec. Spec-compliant
    drivers will reject requests containing unknown capability names.

    Moves the Firefox profile, if present, from the old location to the new Firefox
    options object.

    :Args:
     - caps - A dictionary of capabilities requested by the caller.
    """
    caps = copy.deepcopy(caps)
    profile = caps.get('firefox_profile')
    always_match = {}
    if caps.get('proxy') and caps['proxy'].get('proxyType'):
        caps['proxy']['proxyType'] = caps['proxy']['proxyType'].lower()
    for k, v in caps.items():
        if v and k in _OSS_W3C_CONVERSION:
            always_match[_OSS_W3C_CONVERSION[k]] = v.lower() if k == 'platform' else v
        if k in _W3C_CAPABILITY_NAMES or ':' in k:
            always_match[k] = v
    if profile:
        moz_opts = always_match.get('moz:firefoxOptions', {})
        # If it's already present, assume the caller did that intentionally.
        if 'profile' not in moz_opts:
            # Don't mutate the original capabilities.
            new_opts = copy.deepcopy(moz_opts)
            new_opts['profile'] = profile
            always_match['moz:firefoxOptions'] = new_opts
    return {"firstMatch": [{}], "alwaysMatch": always_match}


class WebDriver(object):
    """
    Controls a browser by sending commands to a remote server.
    This server is expected to be running the WebDriver wire protocol
    as defined at
    https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/JsonWireProtocol

    :Attributes:
     - session_id - String ID of the browser session started and controlled by this WebDriver.
     - capabilities - Dictionaty of effective capabilities of this browser session as returned
         by the remote server. See https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/wiki/DesiredCapabilities
     - command_executor - remote_connection.RemoteConnection object used to execute commands.
     - error_handler - errorhandler.ErrorHandler object used to handle errors.
    """

    _web_element_cls = WebElement

    def __init__(self, command_executor='http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub',
                 desired_capabilities=None, browser_profile=None, proxy=None,
                 keep_alive=False, file_detector=None, options=None):
        """
        Create a new driver that will issue commands using the wire protocol.

        :Args:
         - command_executor - Either a string representing URL of the remote server or a custom
             remote_connection.RemoteConnection object. Defaults to 'http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub'.
         - desired_capabilities - A dictionary of capabilities to request when
             starting the browser session. Required parameter.
         - browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object.
             Only used if Firefox is requested. Optional.
         - proxy - A selenium.webdriver.common.proxy.Proxy object. The browser session will
             be started with given proxy settings, if possible. Optional.
         - keep_alive - Whether to configure remote_connection.RemoteConnection to use
             HTTP keep-alive. Defaults to False.
         - file_detector - Pass custom file detector object during instantiation. If None,
             then default LocalFileDetector() will be used.
         - options - instance of a driver options.Options class
        """
        if desired_capabilities is None:
            raise WebDriverException("Desired Capabilities can't be None")
        if not isinstance(desired_capabilities, dict):
            raise WebDriverException("Desired Capabilities must be a dictionary")
        if proxy is not None:
            warnings.warn("Please use FirefoxOptions to set proxy",
                          DeprecationWarning)
            proxy.add_to_capabilities(desired_capabilities)
        if options is not None:
            desired_capabilities.update(options.to_capabilities())
        self.command_executor = command_executor
        if type(self.command_executor) is bytes or isinstance(self.command_executor, str):
            self.command_executor = RemoteConnection(command_executor, keep_alive=keep_alive)
        self._is_remote = True
        self.session_id = None
        self.capabilities = {}
        self.error_handler = ErrorHandler()
        self.start_client()
        if browser_profile is not None:
            warnings.warn("Please use FirefoxOptions to set browser profile",
                          DeprecationWarning)
        self.start_session(desired_capabilities, browser_profile)
        self._switch_to = SwitchTo(self)
        self._mobile = Mobile(self)
        self.file_detector = file_detector or LocalFileDetector()

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<{0.__module__}.{0.__name__} (session="{1}")>'.format(
            type(self), self.session_id)

    @contextmanager
    def file_detector_context(self, file_detector_class, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Overrides the current file detector (if necessary) in limited context.
        Ensures the original file detector is set afterwards.

        Example:

        with webdriver.file_detector_context(UselessFileDetector):
            someinput.send_keys('/etc/hosts')

        :Args:
         - file_detector_class - Class of the desired file detector. If the class is different
             from the current file_detector, then the class is instantiated with args and kwargs
             and used as a file detector during the duration of the context manager.
         - args - Optional arguments that get passed to the file detector class during
             instantiation.
         - kwargs - Keyword arguments, passed the same way as args.
        """
        last_detector = None
        if not isinstance(self.file_detector, file_detector_class):
            last_detector = self.file_detector
            self.file_detector = file_detector_class(*args, **kwargs)
        try:
            yield
        finally:
            if last_detector is not None:
                self.file_detector = last_detector

    @property
    def mobile(self):
        return self._mobile

    @property
    def name(self):
        """Returns the name of the underlying browser for this instance.

        :Usage:
            name = driver.name
        """
        if 'browserName' in self.capabilities:
            return self.capabilities['browserName']
        else:
            raise KeyError('browserName not specified in session capabilities')

    def start_client(self):
        """
        Called before starting a new session. This method may be overridden
        to define custom startup behavior.
        """
        pass

    def stop_client(self):
        """
        Called after executing a quit command. This method may be overridden
        to define custom shutdown behavior.
        """
        pass

    def start_session(self, capabilities, browser_profile=None):
        """
        Creates a new session with the desired capabilities.

        :Args:
         - browser_name - The name of the browser to request.
         - version - Which browser version to request.
         - platform - Which platform to request the browser on.
         - javascript_enabled - Whether the new session should support JavaScript.
         - browser_profile - A selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_profile.FirefoxProfile object. Only used if Firefox is requested.
        """
        if not isinstance(capabilities, dict):
            raise InvalidArgumentException("Capabilities must be a dictionary")
        if browser_profile:
            if "moz:firefoxOptions" in capabilities:
                capabilities["moz:firefoxOptions"]["profile"] = browser_profile.encoded
            else:
                capabilities.update({'firefox_profile': browser_profile.encoded})
        w3c_caps = _make_w3c_caps(capabilities)
        parameters = {"capabilities": w3c_caps,
                      "desiredCapabilities": capabilities}
        response = self.execute(Command.NEW_SESSION, parameters)
        if 'sessionId' not in response:
            response = response['value']
        self.session_id = response['sessionId']
        self.capabilities = response.get('value')

        # if capabilities is none we are probably speaking to
        # a W3C endpoint
        if self.capabilities is None:
            self.capabilities = response.get('capabilities')

        # Double check to see if we have a W3C Compliant browser
        self.w3c = response.get('status') is None
        self.command_executor.w3c = self.w3c

    def _wrap_value(self, value):
        if isinstance(value, dict):
            converted = {}
            for key, val in value.items():
                converted[key] = self._wrap_value(val)
            return converted
        elif isinstance(value, self._web_element_cls):
            return {'ELEMENT': value.id, 'element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf': value.id}
        elif isinstance(value, list):
            return list(self._wrap_value(item) for item in value)
        else:
            return value

    def create_web_element(self, element_id):
        """Creates a web element with the specified `element_id`."""
        return self._web_element_cls(self, element_id, w3c=self.w3c)

    def _unwrap_value(self, value):
        if isinstance(value, dict):
            if 'ELEMENT' in value or 'element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf' in value:
                wrapped_id = value.get('ELEMENT', None)
                if wrapped_id:
                    return self.create_web_element(value['ELEMENT'])
                else:
                    return self.create_web_element(value['element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf'])
            else:
                for key, val in value.items():
                    value[key] = self._unwrap_value(val)
                return value
        elif isinstance(value, list):
            return list(self._unwrap_value(item) for item in value)
        else:
            return value

    def execute(self, driver_command, params=None):
        """
        Sends a command to be executed by a command.CommandExecutor.

        :Args:
         - driver_command: The name of the command to execute as a string.
         - params: A dictionary of named parameters to send with the command.

        :Returns:
          The command's JSON response loaded into a dictionary object.
        """
        if self.session_id is not None:
            if not params:
                params = {'sessionId': self.session_id}
            elif 'sessionId' not in params:
                params['sessionId'] = self.session_id

        params = self._wrap_value(params)
        response = self.command_executor.execute(driver_command, params)
        if response:
            self.error_handler.check_response(response)
            response['value'] = self._unwrap_value(
                response.get('value', None))
            return response
        # If the server doesn't send a response, assume the command was
        # a success
        return {'success': 0, 'value': None, 'sessionId': self.session_id}

    def get(self, url):
        """
        Loads a web page in the current browser session.
        """
        self.execute(Command.GET, {'url': url})

    @property
    def title(self):
        """Returns the title of the current page.

        :Usage:
            title = driver.title
        """
        resp = self.execute(Command.GET_TITLE)
        return resp['value'] if resp['value'] is not None else ""

    def find_element_by_id(self, id_):
        """Finds an element by id.

        :Args:
         - id\_ - The id of the element to be found.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_id('foo')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.ID, value=id_)

    def find_elements_by_id(self, id_):
        """
        Finds multiple elements by id.

        :Args:
         - id\_ - The id of the elements to be found.

        :Returns:
         - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found.  An
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_id('foo')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.ID, value=id_)

    def find_element_by_xpath(self, xpath):
        """
        Finds an element by xpath.

        :Args:
         - xpath - The xpath locator of the element to find.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_xpath('//div/td[1]')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.XPATH, value=xpath)

    def find_elements_by_xpath(self, xpath):
        """
        Finds multiple elements by xpath.

        :Args:
         - xpath - The xpath locator of the elements to be found.

        :Returns:
         - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found.  An
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_xpath("//div[contains(@class, 'foo')]")
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.XPATH, value=xpath)

    def find_element_by_link_text(self, link_text):
        """
        Finds an element by link text.

        :Args:
         - link_text: The text of the element to be found.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_link_text('Sign In')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.LINK_TEXT, value=link_text)

    def find_elements_by_link_text(self, text):
        """
        Finds elements by link text.

        :Args:
         - link_text: The text of the elements to be found.

        :Returns:
         - list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found.  an
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_link_text('Sign In')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.LINK_TEXT, value=text)

    def find_element_by_partial_link_text(self, link_text):
        """
        Finds an element by a partial match of its link text.

        :Args:
         - link_text: The text of the element to partially match on.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text('Sign')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.PARTIAL_LINK_TEXT, value=link_text)

    def find_elements_by_partial_link_text(self, link_text):
        """
        Finds elements by a partial match of their link text.

        :Args:
         - link_text: The text of the element to partial match on.

        :Returns:
         - list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found.  an
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_partial_link_text('Sign')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.PARTIAL_LINK_TEXT, value=link_text)

    def find_element_by_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds an element by name.

        :Args:
         - name: The name of the element to find.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_name('foo')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.NAME, value=name)

    def find_elements_by_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds elements by name.

        :Args:
         - name: The name of the elements to find.

        :Returns:
         - list of webelement - a list with elements if any was found.  an
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_name('foo')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.NAME, value=name)

    def find_element_by_tag_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds an element by tag name.

        :Args:
         - name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name('h1')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.TAG_NAME, value=name)

    def find_elements_by_tag_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds elements by tag name.

        :Args:
         - name - name of html tag (eg: h1, a, span)

        :Returns:
         - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found.  An
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name('h1')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.TAG_NAME, value=name)

    def find_element_by_class_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds an element by class name.

        :Args:
         - name: The class name of the element to find.

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_class_name('foo')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.CLASS_NAME, value=name)

    def find_elements_by_class_name(self, name):
        """
        Finds elements by class name.

        :Args:
         - name: The class name of the elements to find.

        :Returns:
         - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found.  An
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_class_name('foo')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.CLASS_NAME, value=name)

    def find_element_by_css_selector(self, css_selector):
        """
        Finds an element by css selector.

        :Args:
         - css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: 'a.nav#home'

        :Returns:
         - WebElement - the element if it was found

        :Raises:
         - NoSuchElementException - if the element wasn't found

        :Usage:
            element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('#foo')
        """
        return self.find_element(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value=css_selector)

    def find_elements_by_css_selector(self, css_selector):
        """
        Finds elements by css selector.

        :Args:
         - css_selector - CSS selector string, ex: 'a.nav#home'

        :Returns:
         - list of WebElement - a list with elements if any was found.  An
           empty list if not

        :Usage:
            elements = driver.find_elements_by_css_selector('.foo')
        """
        return self.find_elements(by=By.CSS_SELECTOR, value=css_selector)

    def execute_script(self, script, *args):
        """
        Synchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

        :Args:
         - script: The JavaScript to execute.
         - \*args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.

        :Usage:
            driver.execute_script('return document.title;')
        """
        converted_args = list(args)
        command = None
        if self.w3c:
            command = Command.W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT
        else:
            command = Command.EXECUTE_SCRIPT

        return self.execute(command, {
            'script': script,
            'args': converted_args})['value']

    def execute_async_script(self, script, *args):
        """
        Asynchronously Executes JavaScript in the current window/frame.

        :Args:
         - script: The JavaScript to execute.
         - \*args: Any applicable arguments for your JavaScript.

        :Usage:
            script = "var callback = arguments[arguments.length - 1]; " \
                     "window.setTimeout(function(){ callback('timeout') }, 3000);"
            driver.execute_async_script(script)
        """
        converted_args = list(args)
        if self.w3c:
            command = Command.W3C_EXECUTE_SCRIPT_ASYNC
        else:
            command = Command.EXECUTE_ASYNC_SCRIPT

        return self.execute(command, {
            'script': script,
            'args': converted_args})['value']

    @property
    def current_url(self):
        """
        Gets the URL of the current page.

        :Usage:
            driver.current_url
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_CURRENT_URL)['value']

    @property
    def page_source(self):
        """
        Gets the source of the current page.

        :Usage:
            driver.page_source
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_PAGE_SOURCE)['value']

    def close(self):
        """
        Closes the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.close()
        """
        self.execute(Command.CLOSE)

    def quit(self):
        """
        Quits the driver and closes every associated window.

        :Usage:
            driver.quit()
        """
        try:
            self.execute(Command.QUIT)
        finally:
            self.stop_client()

    @property
    def current_window_handle(self):
        """
        Returns the handle of the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.current_window_handle
        """
        if self.w3c:
            return self.execute(Command.W3C_GET_CURRENT_WINDOW_HANDLE)['value']
        else:
            return self.execute(Command.GET_CURRENT_WINDOW_HANDLE)['value']

    @property
    def window_handles(self):
        """
        Returns the handles of all windows within the current session.

        :Usage:
            driver.window_handles
        """
        if self.w3c:
            return self.execute(Command.W3C_GET_WINDOW_HANDLES)['value']
        else:
            return self.execute(Command.GET_WINDOW_HANDLES)['value']

    def maximize_window(self):
        """
        Maximizes the current window that webdriver is using
        """
        command = Command.MAXIMIZE_WINDOW
        if self.w3c:
            command = Command.W3C_MAXIMIZE_WINDOW
        self.execute(command, {"windowHandle": "current"})

    def fullscreen_window(self):
        """
        Invokes the window manager-specific 'full screen' operation
        """
        self.execute(Command.FULLSCREEN_WINDOW)

    def minimize_window(self):
        """
        Invokes the window manager-specific 'minimize' operation
        """
        self.execute(Command.MINIMIZE_WINDOW)

    @property
    def switch_to(self):
        """
        :Returns:
            - SwitchTo: an object containing all options to switch focus into

        :Usage:
            element = driver.switch_to.active_element
            alert = driver.switch_to.alert
            driver.switch_to.default_content()
            driver.switch_to.frame('frame_name')
            driver.switch_to.frame(1)
            driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_elements_by_tag_name("iframe")[0])
            driver.switch_to.parent_frame()
            driver.switch_to.window('main')
        """
        return self._switch_to

    # Target Locators
    def switch_to_active_element(self):
        """ Deprecated use driver.switch_to.active_element
        """
        warnings.warn("use driver.switch_to.active_element instead", DeprecationWarning)
        return self._switch_to.active_element

    def switch_to_window(self, window_name):
        """ Deprecated use driver.switch_to.window
        """
        warnings.warn("use driver.switch_to.window instead", DeprecationWarning)
        self._switch_to.window(window_name)

    def switch_to_frame(self, frame_reference):
        """ Deprecated use driver.switch_to.frame
        """
        warnings.warn("use driver.switch_to.frame instead", DeprecationWarning)
        self._switch_to.frame(frame_reference)

    def switch_to_default_content(self):
        """ Deprecated use driver.switch_to.default_content
        """
        warnings.warn("use driver.switch_to.default_content instead", DeprecationWarning)
        self._switch_to.default_content()

    def switch_to_alert(self):
        """ Deprecated use driver.switch_to.alert
        """
        warnings.warn("use driver.switch_to.alert instead", DeprecationWarning)
        return self._switch_to.alert

    # Navigation
    def back(self):
        """
        Goes one step backward in the browser history.

        :Usage:
            driver.back()
        """
        self.execute(Command.GO_BACK)

    def forward(self):
        """
        Goes one step forward in the browser history.

        :Usage:
            driver.forward()
        """
        self.execute(Command.GO_FORWARD)

    def refresh(self):
        """
        Refreshes the current page.

        :Usage:
            driver.refresh()
        """
        self.execute(Command.REFRESH)

    # Options
    def get_cookies(self):
        """
        Returns a set of dictionaries, corresponding to cookies visible in the current session.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_cookies()
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_ALL_COOKIES)['value']

    def get_cookie(self, name):
        """
        Get a single cookie by name. Returns the cookie if found, None if not.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_cookie('my_cookie')
        """
        cookies = self.get_cookies()
        for cookie in cookies:
            if cookie['name'] == name:
                return cookie
        return None

    def delete_cookie(self, name):
        """
        Deletes a single cookie with the given name.

        :Usage:
            driver.delete_cookie('my_cookie')
        """
        self.execute(Command.DELETE_COOKIE, {'name': name})

    def delete_all_cookies(self):
        """
        Delete all cookies in the scope of the session.

        :Usage:
            driver.delete_all_cookies()
        """
        self.execute(Command.DELETE_ALL_COOKIES)

    def add_cookie(self, cookie_dict):
        """
        Adds a cookie to your current session.

        :Args:
         - cookie_dict: A dictionary object, with required keys - "name" and "value";
            optional keys - "path", "domain", "secure", "expiry"

        Usage:
            driver.add_cookie({'name' : 'foo', 'value' : 'bar'})
            driver.add_cookie({'name' : 'foo', 'value' : 'bar', 'path' : '/'})
            driver.add_cookie({'name' : 'foo', 'value' : 'bar', 'path' : '/', 'secure':True})

        """
        self.execute(Command.ADD_COOKIE, {'cookie': cookie_dict})

    # Timeouts
    def implicitly_wait(self, time_to_wait):
        """
        Sets a sticky timeout to implicitly wait for an element to be found,
           or a command to complete. This method only needs to be called one
           time per session. To set the timeout for calls to
           execute_async_script, see set_script_timeout.

        :Args:
         - time_to_wait: Amount of time to wait (in seconds)

        :Usage:
            driver.implicitly_wait(30)
        """
        if self.w3c:
            self.execute(Command.SET_TIMEOUTS, {
                'implicit': int(float(time_to_wait) * 1000)})
        else:
            self.execute(Command.IMPLICIT_WAIT, {
                'ms': float(time_to_wait) * 1000})

    def set_script_timeout(self, time_to_wait):
        """
        Set the amount of time that the script should wait during an
           execute_async_script call before throwing an error.

        :Args:
         - time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait (in seconds)

        :Usage:
            driver.set_script_timeout(30)
        """
        if self.w3c:
            self.execute(Command.SET_TIMEOUTS, {
                'script': int(float(time_to_wait) * 1000)})
        else:
            self.execute(Command.SET_SCRIPT_TIMEOUT, {
                'ms': float(time_to_wait) * 1000})

    def set_page_load_timeout(self, time_to_wait):
        """
        Set the amount of time to wait for a page load to complete
           before throwing an error.

        :Args:
         - time_to_wait: The amount of time to wait

        :Usage:
            driver.set_page_load_timeout(30)
        """
        try:
            self.execute(Command.SET_TIMEOUTS, {
                'pageLoad': int(float(time_to_wait) * 1000)})
        except WebDriverException:
            self.execute(Command.SET_TIMEOUTS, {
                'ms': float(time_to_wait) * 1000,
                'type': 'page load'})

    def find_element(self, by=By.ID, value=None):
        """
        'Private' method used by the find_element_by_* methods.

        :Usage:
            Use the corresponding find_element_by_* instead of this.

        :rtype: WebElement
        """
        if self.w3c:
            if by == By.ID:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = '[id="%s"]' % value
            elif by == By.TAG_NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
            elif by == By.CLASS_NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = ".%s" % value
            elif by == By.NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = '[name="%s"]' % value
        return self.execute(Command.FIND_ELEMENT, {
            'using': by,
            'value': value})['value']

    def find_elements(self, by=By.ID, value=None):
        """
        'Private' method used by the find_elements_by_* methods.

        :Usage:
            Use the corresponding find_elements_by_* instead of this.

        :rtype: list of WebElement
        """
        if self.w3c:
            if by == By.ID:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = '[id="%s"]' % value
            elif by == By.TAG_NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
            elif by == By.CLASS_NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = ".%s" % value
            elif by == By.NAME:
                by = By.CSS_SELECTOR
                value = '[name="%s"]' % value

        # Return empty list if driver returns null
        # See https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/selenium/issues/4555
        return self.execute(Command.FIND_ELEMENTS, {
            'using': by,
            'value': value})['value'] or []

    @property
    def desired_capabilities(self):
        """
        returns the drivers current desired capabilities being used
        """
        return self.capabilities

    def get_screenshot_as_file(self, filename):
        """
        Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
           False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in
           your filename.

        :Args:
         - filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This
           should end with a `.png` extension.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_screenshot_as_file('/Screenshots/foo.png')
        """
        if not filename.lower().endswith('.png'):
            warnings.warn("name used for saved screenshot does not match file "
                          "type. It should end with a `.png` extension", UserWarning)
        png = self.get_screenshot_as_png()
        try:
            with open(filename, 'wb') as f:
                f.write(png)
        except IOError:
            return False
        finally:
            del png
        return True

    def save_screenshot(self, filename):
        """
        Saves a screenshot of the current window to a PNG image file. Returns
           False if there is any IOError, else returns True. Use full paths in
           your filename.

        :Args:
         - filename: The full path you wish to save your screenshot to. This
           should end with a `.png` extension.

        :Usage:
            driver.save_screenshot('/Screenshots/foo.png')
        """
        return self.get_screenshot_as_file(filename)

    def get_screenshot_as_png(self):
        """
        Gets the screenshot of the current window as a binary data.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_screenshot_as_png()
        """
        return base64.b64decode(self.get_screenshot_as_base64().encode('ascii'))

    def get_screenshot_as_base64(self):
        """
        Gets the screenshot of the current window as a base64 encoded string
           which is useful in embedded images in HTML.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_screenshot_as_base64()
        """
        return self.execute(Command.SCREENSHOT)['value']

    def set_window_size(self, width, height, windowHandle='current'):
        """
        Sets the width and height of the current window. (window.resizeTo)

        :Args:
         - width: the width in pixels to set the window to
         - height: the height in pixels to set the window to

        :Usage:
            driver.set_window_size(800,600)
        """
        if self.w3c:
            if windowHandle != 'current':
                warnings.warn("Only 'current' window is supported for W3C compatibile browsers.")
            self.set_window_rect(width=int(width), height=int(height))
        else:
            self.execute(Command.SET_WINDOW_SIZE, {
                'width': int(width),
                'height': int(height),
                'windowHandle': windowHandle})

    def get_window_size(self, windowHandle='current'):
        """
        Gets the width and height of the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_window_size()
        """
        command = Command.GET_WINDOW_SIZE
        if self.w3c:
            if windowHandle != 'current':
                warnings.warn("Only 'current' window is supported for W3C compatibile browsers.")
            size = self.get_window_rect()
        else:
            size = self.execute(command, {'windowHandle': windowHandle})

        if size.get('value', None) is not None:
            size = size['value']

        return {k: size[k] for k in ('width', 'height')}

    def set_window_position(self, x, y, windowHandle='current'):
        """
        Sets the x,y position of the current window. (window.moveTo)

        :Args:
         - x: the x-coordinate in pixels to set the window position
         - y: the y-coordinate in pixels to set the window position

        :Usage:
            driver.set_window_position(0,0)
        """
        if self.w3c:
            if windowHandle != 'current':
                warnings.warn("Only 'current' window is supported for W3C compatibile browsers.")
            return self.set_window_rect(x=int(x), y=int(y))
        else:
            self.execute(Command.SET_WINDOW_POSITION,
                         {
                             'x': int(x),
                             'y': int(y),
                             'windowHandle': windowHandle
                         })

    def get_window_position(self, windowHandle='current'):
        """
        Gets the x,y position of the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_window_position()
        """
        if self.w3c:
            if windowHandle != 'current':
                warnings.warn("Only 'current' window is supported for W3C compatibile browsers.")
            position = self.get_window_rect()
        else:
            position = self.execute(Command.GET_WINDOW_POSITION,
                                    {'windowHandle': windowHandle})['value']

        return {k: position[k] for k in ('x', 'y')}

    def get_window_rect(self):
        """
        Gets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of
        the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.get_window_rect()
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_WINDOW_RECT)['value']

    def set_window_rect(self, x=None, y=None, width=None, height=None):
        """
        Sets the x, y coordinates of the window as well as height and width of
        the current window.

        :Usage:
            driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10)
            driver.set_window_rect(width=100, height=200)
            driver.set_window_rect(x=10, y=10, width=100, height=200)
        """
        if (x is None and y is None) and (height is None and width is None):
            raise InvalidArgumentException("x and y or height and width need values")

        return self.execute(Command.SET_WINDOW_RECT, {"x": x, "y": y,
                                                      "width": width,
                                                      "height": height})['value']

    @property
    def file_detector(self):
        return self._file_detector

    @file_detector.setter
    def file_detector(self, detector):
        """
        Set the file detector to be used when sending keyboard input.
        By default, this is set to a file detector that does nothing.

        see FileDetector
        see LocalFileDetector
        see UselessFileDetector

        :Args:
         - detector: The detector to use. Must not be None.
        """
        if detector is None:
            raise WebDriverException("You may not set a file detector that is null")
        if not isinstance(detector, FileDetector):
            raise WebDriverException("Detector has to be instance of FileDetector")
        self._file_detector = detector

    @property
    def orientation(self):
        """
        Gets the current orientation of the device

        :Usage:
            orientation = driver.orientation
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_SCREEN_ORIENTATION)['value']

    @orientation.setter
    def orientation(self, value):
        """
        Sets the current orientation of the device

        :Args:
         - value: orientation to set it to.

        :Usage:
            driver.orientation = 'landscape'
        """
        allowed_values = ['LANDSCAPE', 'PORTRAIT']
        if value.upper() in allowed_values:
            self.execute(Command.SET_SCREEN_ORIENTATION, {'orientation': value})
        else:
            raise WebDriverException("You can only set the orientation to 'LANDSCAPE' and 'PORTRAIT'")

    @property
    def application_cache(self):
        """ Returns a ApplicationCache Object to interact with the browser app cache"""
        return ApplicationCache(self)

    @property
    def log_types(self):
        """
        Gets a list of the available log types

        :Usage:
            driver.log_types
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_AVAILABLE_LOG_TYPES)['value']

    def get_log(self, log_type):
        """
        Gets the log for a given log type

        :Args:
         - log_type: type of log that which will be returned

        :Usage:
            driver.get_log('browser')
            driver.get_log('driver')
            driver.get_log('client')
            driver.get_log('server')
        """
        return self.execute(Command.GET_LOG, {'type': log_type})['value']

從目前的 source code 可以清楚的看到如何去使用 webdriver 物件。

 

下面的這個 chromedriver 切換 frame 的功能,如果你要是搶「熱門」的票,是遇不到的,熱門的場次都是「自動畫位」,所以不必自己去選坐位,自動選坐位會彈出在 iframe 裡,可以使用下面這行指令即可切換到選位的 iframe:

driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_element_by_xpath("//iframe[contains(@src,'/ticket/selectSeat/')]"))

selenium定位页面元素的时候会遇到定位不到的问题,明明元素就在那儿,用檢視原素也可以看到,就是定位不到,这种情况很有可能是frame在搞鬼。

frame标签有frameset、frame、iframe三种,frameset跟其他普通标签没有区别,不会影响到正常的定位,而frame与iframe对selenium定位而言是一样的,selenium有一组方法对frame进行操作。

1.怎么切到frame中(switch_to.frame())

selenium提供了switch_to.frame()方法来切换frame

switch_to.frame(reference)

reference是传入的参数,用来定位frame,可以传入id、name、index以及selenium的WebElement对象,假设有如下HTML代码 index.html:

<html lang="en">
<head>
 <title>FrameTest</title>
</head>
<body>
<iframe src="a.html" id="frame1" name="myframe"></iframe>
</body>
</html>

想要定位其中的iframe并切进去,可以通过如下代码:

from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.switch_to.frame(0) # 1.用frame的index来定位,第一个是0
# driver.switch_to.frame("frame1") # 2.用id来定位
# driver.switch_to.frame("myframe") # 3.用name来定位
# driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_element_by_tag_name("iframe")) # 4.用WebElement对象来定位

通常采用id和name就能够解决绝大多数问题。但有时候frame并无这两项属性,则可以用index和WebElement来定位:

index从0开始,传入整型参数即判定为用index定位,传入str参数则判定为用id/name定位
WebElement对象,即用find_element系列方法所取得的对象,我们可以用tag_name、xpath等来定位frame对象
举个例子:

<iframe src="myframetest.html" />

用xpath定位,传入WebElement对象:

driver.switch_to.frame(driver.find_element_by_xpath("//iframe[contains(@src,'myframe')]"))

 

2.从frame中切回主文档(switch_to.default_content())

切到frame中之后,我们便不能继续操作主文档的元素,这时如果想操作主文档内容,则需切回主文档。

driver.switch_to.default_content()

3.嵌套frame的操作(switch_to.parent_frame())

有时候我们会遇到嵌套的frame,如下:

<html>
 <iframe id="frame1">
 <iframe id="frame2" / >
 </iframe>
</html>

1.从主文档切到frame2,一层层切进去

driver.switch_to.frame("frame1")
driver.switch_to.frame("frame2")

2.从frame2再切回frame1,这里selenium给我们提供了一个方法能够从子frame切回到父frame,而不用我们切回主文档再切进来。

driver.switch_to.parent_frame() # 如果当前已是主文档,则无效果

有了parent_frame()这个相当于后退的方法,我们可以随意切换不同的frame,随意的跳来跳去了。

所以只要善用以下三个方法,遇到frame分分钟搞定:

driver.switch_to.frame(reference)
driver.switch_to.parent_frame()
driver.switch_to.default_content()

如何在Server side(伺服器端)檢查使用者有沒開 chromedriver?

Can a website detect when you are using selenium with chromedriver?
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/33225947/can-a-website-detect-when-you-are-using-selenium-with-chromedriver

上面文章不用去看了,我檢查過新的版本的 selenium 完全不會多產生上面的 key 值。


拓元在 2018-05-12 之後更新的javascript 如下:

function order_check() {
 var count = valueCount(["WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek="]),
 maxQuota = 4;

if(!$("#TicketForm_agree").prop("checked")) {
 alert("\u8acb\u5148\u8a73\u95b1\u4e14\u540c\u610f\u6703\u54e1\u670d\u52d9\u689d\u6b3e\u5f8c\u518d\u884c\u9001\u51fa\u52d5\u4f5c\u3002");
 } else if (count > maxQuota) {
 alert("\u55ae\u7b46\u4ea4\u6613\u6700\u591a\u53ef\u8cb7 \" + maxQuota + \" \u5f35");
 } else if (count == 0) {
 alert("\u8acb\u81f3\u5c11\u9078\u64c7\u4e00\u7a2e\u7968\u7a2e");
 
 } else {
 var ticketType = ["WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek="],
 ticketTypeSelector = $("[name=\"" + ticketType.join("\"], [name=\"") + "\"]");

ticketTypeSelector.each(function() {
 $(this).attr("name", "TicketForm[ticketPrice][" + $(this).get(0).name + "]");
 });
 return true;
 }

return false;
}

function valueCount(elements) {
 elements = countValById(elements);
 return elements.reduce(function(total, element) {
 return total + element;
 }, 0);
}

$("select[id=\"WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek=\"]").on("click", function(event) {
 if (!!event.originalEvent.isTrusted && !event.isTrigger) {
 $("#TicketForm_checked").attr("name", "TicketForm[ticketPrice][vQmwBD+sVq5AOWaOJrdiOQ5oIjAlhU38AxsBgnL1qkU=]");
 }
});
$("#TicketForm_agree").on("click", function(event) {
 if (!!event.originalEvent.isTrusted && !$(this).checked && !event.isTrigger) {
 $(this).attr("name", "TicketForm[agree][YnuMm9Vok/JcdY82p5pho4QaTg8m+p735VSWpPyjOfE=]");
 }
})

$("#TicketForm").on("change", function(event) {
 var ticketType = ["WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek="];

if (ticketType.indexOf(event.target.id) != -1) {
 var count = valueCount(ticketType),
 maxQuota = 4;

if (count > maxQuota) {
 var num = parseInt($(event.target).val()) + (maxQuota - count);

alert("\u55ae\u7b46\u4ea4\u6613\u6700\u591a\u53ef\u8cb7 \" + maxQuota + \" \u5f35\uff0c\u60a8\u5171\u9078\u64c7\u4e86 \" + count + \" \u5f35");

while ($(event.target).find("option[value=" + num + "]").length < 1 && num != 0) {
 num--;
 }

$(event.target).val(num);
 }

$("#ticketQuota").text(maxQuota - valueCount(ticketType));
 }
});

$("#TicketForm select").change();

 <select class="mobile-select" name="WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek=" id="WMeBWmQEOdoAKQq0wKU8kv4k5VcwA3GjyISDUmtPZek=">
<option value="0">0</option>
<option value="1">1</option>
<option value="2">2</option>
<option value="3">3</option>
<option value="4">4</option>
 </select>

針對上面的程式碼,如果使用

driver.execute_script("$('#TicketForm_agree').prop('checked', true);")

並不會觸發 onclick 事件。請改服用:

form_checkbox = None
try:
 form_checkbox = driver.find_element(By.ID, 'TicketForm_agree')
 if form_checkbox is not None:
 try:
 form_checkbox.click()
 except Exception as exc:
 print "click TicketForm_agree fail"
 pass
except NoSuchElementException:
 print "find TicketForm_agree fail"

附註, select box 比照 checkbox 的 code, 先產生 click 再去選取預期的張數即可。

 


自動關掉 alert 對話框的工具:
https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/alert-control/ofjjanaennfbgpccfpbghnmblpdblbef

這個工具很重要,可以節省大約一秒的時間。

要下載 chrome extension 可以使用 “Get CRX” extension 來取得。

在 selenium 裡載入 extension 程式碼:

extension_path = Root_Dir + "webdriver/Alert_Control.crx"
chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
chrome_options.add_extension(extension_path)
chromedriver_path =Root_Dir+ "webdriver/chromedriver"
driver = webdriver.Chrome(chrome_options=chrome_options, executable_path=chromedriver_path)

相關文章:

Max的拓元搶票機器人
http://max-everyday.com/2018/03/tixcraft-bot/

Max自動掛號機器人
http://max-everyday.com/2018/08/max-auto-reg-bot/

相關文章

30 comments

  1. 您好,請問能教我怎麼設定嗎 我看了您的YT影片 進來這看不太懂,

    謝謝您的回覆。

  2. 你好 不知道這個有沒有更好理解或操作的><
    因為完全沒有理工背景 全部都看不懂….

    1. 可正常操作,目前卡在:「欲購票者,建議於節目開賣前25小時,完成加入會員及手機號碼驗證。(驗證通過24小時後,才可購票)」,要過 24小時後,才能做新的影片出來,Demo 如何在改版後自動買票。

      Your mobile phone number has been verified at 2018/05/04 09:41. You may start to purchase tickets at 2018/05/05 09:41.
      系統說,我明天才能買票。

  3. 流程基本上應能正常操作,但聽說使用程式/機器人實際登入後購票好像會被強制登出

    1. hello, 我目前是使用 MacOS 內建的 Python 2.7.10,理論上 Python3 應該也可以執行。

  4. 請問輸入完程式碼後要怎麼儲存才能讓他自動跑呢?
    我要邊輸入程式碼網頁才會跟著動耶 還是我哪裡做錯了嗎?

    1. 你的問題太難,我無法理解。要執行python 的腳本,就是在命令列模式下去輸入 python your-filename.py

  5. 您好,

    感謝您的教學,我有一個小疑問請教
    我設定好了一個Selenium腳本,不過寫法都只會執行一次
    如果我想要每點開一個新頁面就讓它執行一次腳本(抓element 自動典擊等等)
    請問這邊是加入一個time函數讓他去重複跑?
    或是有什麼方法 可以達成這個目標?

    1. 您的問題太抽像,看不懂。上次我搶安室的票中間有多一個步驟是要求客人多打入一串字,類似多問使用者一個問題。

  6. 您好:
    請問若是需要如購票驗證(進入選區域畫面之前) 這種狀況有辦法繞過嗎?
    謝謝您

    1. 可以寫程式去固定選取最前面的坐位,這個程式不難,需要跨frameset的寫法,我有描述在文章裡。通常需要手動去選位的活動,似乎訂票情況都不是很搶手。

  7. Max您好
    小弟自學Python之後也完成了類似的流程
    從登入到買票都ok,但最後按下確定購票時,果然被強制登出了(回覆中也有人提到)
    目前一直卡在最後一步,不知道拓元是怎麼判斷的
    是否方便提供您的程式碼讓我參考呢,感謝!

  8. Max您好
    小弟自學Python之後也寫好了類似的流程
    從登入到買票都ok,但最後按下確定購票時,果然被強制登出了(回覆中也有人提到)
    目前一直卡在最後一步
    是否方便提供您的程式碼讓我參考呢,感謝!

    1. 被登出的原因,只要看一下拓元的 javascript 就可以知道,是因為透過程式去觸發的事件較少,把 javascript 裡需要補足的事件補齊即可通過javascript的檢查。

  9. 不好意思 有個關於選區域的問題請要請教
    用seleuium 來寫的話
    如果我用像是 , get innerText的方式 去抓字元判斷
    但是這時候會發現他不支援中文編碼
    也就是很難用這個方式去鎖定區域選擇
    請問有較好的方式嗎? 或是如何讓他支援中文編碼?
    感謝~

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